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eric Offline
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The [Currently Less-Incomplete] Linux-Reference Sticky - 01-24-2007 , 07:34 PM

This sticky is currently undergoing some "re-arranging" please bear with us as the changes are made.

Ok.. I have been working on my PC so much lately that I have neglected things such as Halo/HIH/Food/etc. I am still doing minor tweaks and updates now, and if I don't finish them I will forget about it.

So for now, I will put this up and build on it as I get time. The basic idea here is that if you have already searched google and can not find your answer, or do not understand what it is you are looking for, then visit us on the official Linux help channel on IBO (irc.bungie.org). If you don't know how to get there, follow this guide by Daleks/Sprout, but instead of joining #hih or whatever, join #unix

You can ask questions here as well, but don't expect an immediate response.

That is all for now. Good luck.

- Eric

PS: Some other good sites:

Last edited by galador; 06-07-2007 at 01:56 AM. .

sonicvanajr Offline
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Join Date: Mar 2006
01-28-2007 , 02:17 AM

Easiest Linux installation process ever.
Windows executables that setup a Linux installation from within Windows.
Linux Podcasts
Various Distros
http://distrowatch.com/ | For even more distributions than listed below

Beginner Distributions
For those who are intrigued by Linux, and want to learn more. We encourage you greatly !
  1. http://www.ubuntu.com/ | The Beginners Linux. Yours truly used this.
  2. http://opensuse.org/ | Another "newb" friendly distro.
  3. http://www.freespire.org/ | A mixture of various flavors of Linux.
  4. http://www.pclinuxos.com/ | Somewhat new, but good reviews.
For those looking to take the step to a distro where they can apply their Linux fu.
  1. http://fedora.redhat.com/ | Redhat based, user friendly.
  2. http://www.debian.org/ | Father of Ubuntu. Very popular.
For those Linux gurus, those command line masters, those "1337 h4x0rz".
Not really to the last one, but you get the idea !

Requires in-depth knowledge of your computer hardware, and the Linux system files. Be prepared to read quite a bit, and probably attempt installation more then once, or twice (Took me three tries >.>)
Allows the user to break their system (software-wise) very easily.

One of the oldest Linux distros still around. Said to be the most Unix-like as well. Follows the KISS Principle, and is said to be very stable.

For now....

Last edited by sonicvanajr; 06-23-2007 at 09:11 PM. .

galador's Avatar
galador Offline
Corgi, I dare say...
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Common Questions - 06-07-2007 , 02:19 AM

  • Do I lose all my programs? And if so, is there some way to recover them on linux?
    • If you mean "can I use my Windows program under Linux, then mostly no. Though there is WINE (a Windows-API interface for Linux), some programs work, some don't.

  • Will I lose all my files?
    • To actually install Linux, you will need to create a partition to put it on. However, there are some non-destructive partitioners such as Partition Magic and gPartEd (included with many modern distributions). Even though they are labeled as "non-destructive", sometimes "bad things" can happen and you may lose data. You should always backup sensitive data before attempting to partition a hard drive. Also, Linux includes (or can be compiled to include) at least read support for all major file systems (including NTFS, which is probably what you're using if you have a version of Windows since Windows 2000).

  • Is there some way to have 2 operating systems on 1 computer?
    • Yes, and it's quite easy. You just need to partition your hard drive to hold each OS. If you plan to install Windows and Linux on the same computer, you should first install Windows, and then Linux, which will install a bootloader program which will let you choose which operating system you want to boot into at startup.

  • From Windows to Linux users, what kind of trouble have you had with linux?
    • Most people find it fairly easy to adapt to a Linux-based desktop system from Windows. The main problems people have are support "out-of-the-box" for wireless and graphics cards. Though, most of the time, they are detcted and correctly installed, sometimes they may require some manual setup. Also, the support for games on Linux is rather lacking. There are programs such as WINE and Cedega which provide Windows compatibility layers which may allow you to run your Windows apps or games.

  • So what is the advantage of running Linux on your computer?
    • This really depends on what you want to do with your computer. There are pros and cons for all Operating Systems. For example, if you enjoy PC gaming, then Linux is not really for you. But, if you enjoy having the freedom of your OS, and being able to do basically anything you want, and learning a ton while you're at it, then Linux is for you. Linux is also inherently more secure then windows, and definitely raises your computer knowledge. ~ SonicvanaJr

  • Can I run Linux without installing it to my hard drive?
    • Yes. Many distributions of Linux now feature a "LiveCD" variant of their releases that allow you to run the distro from the CD so that you can "test it out" without having to physically install it.

Last edited by galador; 06-07-2007 at 04:53 PM. .

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Useful Terminal Commands - 06-07-2007 , 02:23 AM

The terminal (the "shell" or command line of Linux) is one of the most useful parts of the Linux operating system. If you can effectively use the Terminal in Linux, you will be able to traverse the Operating System more efficiently and effectively. Here is a list of some of the most common commands you will probably use in your Linux experiences and some shortcuts you can employ.

It should be noted that if an example is included, then it will be shown as it would in the command prompt. I.E., each command will be prefixed with the dollar sign. The dollar sign is not part of the command.

Useful Shell "Shortcuts":

~ (The Tilde) - substitution for the user's home directory. If I had an account on a Linux machine named galador, then the "~" would be a substitute for /home/galador/.

{} (Braces) - can be used to for expansion. Each expansion is contained in the braces, and each item to be expanded is separated by commas. For example, if I wanted to make the directories "lunch" and "dinner" in my home directory, with each of those directories containing the sub-directories "bacon", "lettuce", "and "tomatoes", I could use the brace expansion in combination with the mkdir command (explained more fully later) like so:
PHP Code:
mkdir /home/galador/{lunch,dinner}/{bacon,lettuce,tomatoes
| (The pipe. The shift character of the backslash) - can be used to redirect the output of one command to the second command's input. Useful if searching for things through grep. For example, if you were looking for a certain process p, you could use the pipe to combine the ps (lists process) and grep (searches for a string) commands (both explained in depth later):
PHP Code:
ps aux grep p 
Tab - The use of the tab button on the keyboard can be used to tab-complete commands. For example, if you had a really long filename, abcdefghijkl.txt, that you wanted to edit with the nano editor, then you could type "nano abc<tab>", and it would automatically complete the file name. If there are multiple files that start with the same character combinations, it will complete the name up to where they differ. If there are multiple completions, then hitting tab twice will show all possible completions.

Interactive History - With bash, you can use the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard to move to the previous and next executed commands, repectively. For example, if you use the command "ls", and then use the command "cd .." (to list the directory contents and move up one directory, respectively), you can hit the up arrow twice to return to the "ls" command, and then press down once to return to the "cd .."

> or >> (Output Redirection) - You can redirect the output of a command using either ">" or ">>" Using ">" will write the output of a command to a new file (or if the file exists, it will be over-written). Using ">>" will append the output to the end of the specified file. For example,
PHP Code:
grep string filename outputfile 
Will search filename for string and output the results to the new file, outputfile.

Commands will be listed in the following sytax: command [-useful_switches] required_input [optional_input]

cd directory
Changes to directory directory. cd can either be relative ("cd blah" will move you to a directory named "blah" inside the one you are currently in. "cd .." will move you up one directory level.) or absolute ("cd /usr/bin" will move you to the /usr/bin directory), depending of the presence of a preceding forward slash.

cp file1 file2
Copies file1 to file2.

emacs filename
Edits filename with the emacs editor.

grep string filename
Searches for and outputs all the lines in filename that include string.

kill process_number
Used to end process_number. WARNING: If used as root, this command can be very dangerous. If you end the incorrect process, you could crash the system.

less filename
Similar to the more command, except you can also use Page-Up as well.

Exits the shell.

ls [-l] [directory]
Displays the contents of the directory (either directory or the current directory). The switch -l (lowercase L) shows a detailed directory list (includes a list of permissions, the owner, creation time and more).

man command
Displays the manual pages for command. The manual pages are extremely useful, and should be one of the first methods you consult for help.

mkdir [-p] dir1 [dir2 ...]
Used to create directories. The -p switch creates all implied directories in the path.

more filename
Progressively displays filename on the screen. ENTER = one line down SPACEBAR = page down q=quit

mv file1 newfile
Used to either move or rename a file. Will rename if no directory is given with newfile.

nano filename
Edits filename with the nano editor.

ps [aux]
(Note: aux, in this case isn't a filename or other command, but they are flags [switches].)
Displays a list of process running on the current machine. By itself, ps will only show processes that originated from the current terminal. The a flag can cause two things. By itself, it shows all processes that are connected to a terminal. Combined with the x flag, a shows all processes. The u flag shows the detailed process list, which includes username, CPU%, Memory %, stats, and start time, in addition to the the default display offered by ps.

rm [-rf] file 1 [file2 ...]
Used to delete files. The -r switch is used to recursively delete a directory and it's contents. The -f switch forces the delete. WARNING: Be careful if you use this command while root. You can delete the entire contents of your hard drive if you use the command "rm -rf /". You can also easily delete files that are necessary for the operation of Linux.

The file archiving utility in Linux (like WinZIP or WinRAR). It has many options, which will each be explained below.

tar cvf archive.tar file1 [file2...]
Create a tar archive as a file "archive.tar" containing file1, file2...etc.

tar xvf archive.tar
Extract from the archive file archive.tar.

tar cvfz archive.tar.gz dir
Create a gzip compressed tar archive, archive.tar.gz, containing everything in the directory dname.

tar xvfz archive.tar.gz
Extract the gzip compressed tar archive, archive.tar.gz.

Displays an interactive process list.

vi filename
Edits filename with the vi editor.

Last edited by galador; 06-07-2007 at 05:57 PM. .

Drock's Avatar
Drock Offline
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08-20-2007 , 11:27 PM

I found this list of tutorials whilst stumbling. I'm not sure if you guys would like to go over it and add stuff or just throw it away, but I went over a little bit of it and found it to be quite useful and easy to understand.


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